Elastography, the science of creating noninvasive images of mechanical characteristics of tissues, has been rapidly evolving in recent years. The advantage of this technique resides in the ability to rapidly detect and quantify the changes in the stiffness of soft tissues resulting from specific pathological or physiological processes. Ultrasound elastography is nowadays applied especially on the liver and breast, but the technique has been increasingly used for other tissues including the thyroid, lymph nodes, spleen, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, prostate, and the musculoskeletal and vascular systems. This book presents some of the applications of strain and shear-wave ultrasound elastography in hepatic, pancreatic, breast, and musculoskeletal conditions.Go to the book
An increasingly common cause of chronic liver disease in adults and children is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The diagnosis of NAFLD was traditionally based on the histopathological changes of the liver, evaluated by needle liver biopsy, an invasive method, with potential adverse effects and great inter and intraobserver variability. The noninvasive methods for the assessment of both fibrosis and steatosis in patients with NAFLD have increasingly been studied lately. Of these noninvasive methods, in this chapter, we will focus on the methods assessing the stiffness of liver parenchyma, i.e. elastographic methods, of which, the most widely used are ultrasound elastography techniques. We will discuss the principal elastographic methods of some utility in NAFLD, i.e. shear wdave elastography (SWE) (quantitative elastography), and especially transient elastography, point SWE (acoustic radiation force impulse elastography, ARFI) and two-dimensional real-time SWE (Supersonic). For each method usable in NAFLD cases, we will review the method principle, examination technique and performance in NAFLD evaluation.
Part of the book: Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Because of the limitations and invasive nature of liver biopsy, other noninvasive means are being tested for the evaluation of diffuse liver diseases. One of these methods is vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE). This chapter reviews the principle of VCTE, the examination technique, the normal range for liver stiffness values, the pathological changes that may influence liver stiffness, as well as the diagnostic performance in several diffuse liver diseases, especially chronic hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis B, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and alcoholic liver disease. Apart from the assessment of fibrosis stages, we will also discuss the diagnosis of cirrhosis and its complications as well as other applications of VCTE, reviewing its advantages and limitations.
Part of the book: Ultrasound Elastography