Risks involved in new technologies or arising from novel configurations of old technologies recurrently result in major accidents. For example, the new bioleaching technology to extract nickel from ore was taken into use in Finland in 2008. Later, one of the personnel died as a victim of hydrogen sulfide exposure and there were unplanned releases of process waters that contaminated lakes and rivers. Several risk analyses were performed but none of them considered the local climate and surrounding environmental circumstances. A comprehensive risk assessment process combining the knowledge of different stakeholders, authorities, and citizens would have helped to avoid the sad outcome. A single enterprise has a very clear picture of the risk figure on its own, but is reluctant to reveal commercially sensitive information to others, and even incapable of understanding all the expectations and constraints that the natural and built environments may impose. Only governmental authorities are in a position to form a comprehensive picture of all the risks. This paper presents a new approach for a proactive risk identification method based on collaborative integrated assessment. It states that by implementing this method society is able to utilize the science-based information in an efficient way for managing the emerging technogenic risks.
Part of the book: Risk Assessment
Climate change has had a major impact on the Nordic region. For example, the mean temperature rise is expected to be 4–6°C by 2080. In Finland, the regional authorities are responsible for climate change adaptation. Some of the most vulnerable sectors include energy, tourism, transport and water supply. Currently, it appears that the authorities are not familiar with the tools for assessing climate risks and lack knowledge about the impact of climate change. In this paper, we provide a review of risk assessment methods and decision-making tools, focusing on adapting to climate change in a Finnish context. Our research method comprises a systematic qualitative literature review dealing with relevant journals, dissertations and deliverables of relevant EU projects since 2005.
Part of the book: Climate Change and Global Warming