The discovery of fullerenes and their production in measurable quantities launched many studies about their reactivity and possible applications. Their peculiar structure opened possibilities for their study, initially replacing carbon atoms with alternative atoms. The surface also offers the possibility of attaching several species and the interior of their hollow structure represents a challenge because of the possibility of confining elements or molecules that may become less stable when attached to the exterior of the cage. These modifications may considerably affect both chemical and physical properties. In this chapter, we propose the encapsulation of 3–10 nitrogen atoms as aggregates inside the C70 cage. We also study the structures and reactivity indexes and the stabilization conferred as a result of being part of the fullerene. These aggregates are mainly of interest because of their possible application as energetic materials.
Part of the book: Fullerenes and Relative Materials
In the present work, molar fractions were obtained as a function of temperature with different levels of theory for the most representative isomers of three systems belonging to the family of pseudosaccharins. The choice of those three systems was due to the fact that it is known in the scientific literature that these systems present very small differences in their relative energies which make a complicated experimental characterization, in addition these compounds are of interest in the biological area. These systems represent challenges not only from an experimental point of view but also from a theoretical point of view. From the theoretical perspective, this study is also complicated since several possible isomers with very similar energies are presented. The diagrams of species distribution (molar fractions) provide information that cannot be accessed through the electronic structure calculations at T = 0. Here, this tool was useful to identify the most probable isomer from several quasi-degenerate isomers and to discern if thermal effects favor any of them, as well as to find trends despite the different results of each level of theory. Additionally, an analysis was performed on vibrational, rotational and electronic data in order to know the reason of the behavior of molar fractions as function of temperature.
Part of the book: Density Functional Calculations