Challenges and Opportunities of Optical Wireless Communication Technologies
By Isiaka Alimi, Ali Shahpari, Artur Sousa, Ricardo Ferreira, Paulo
Monteiro and António Teixeira
In this chapter, we present various opportunities of using optical wireless communication (OWC) technologies in each sector of optical communication networks. Moreover, challenges of optical wireless network implementations are investigated. We characterized the optical wireless communication channel through the channel measurements and present different models for the OWC link performance evaluations. In addition, we present some technologies for the OWC performance enhancement in order to address the last-mile transmission bottleneck of the system efficiently. The technologies can be of great help in alleviating the stringent requirement by the cloud radio access network (C-RAN) backhaul/fronthaul as well as in the evolution toward an efficient backhaul/fronthaul for the 5G network. Furthermore, we present a proof-of-concept experiment in order to demonstrate and evaluate high capacity/flexible coherent PON and OWC links for different network configurations in the terrestrial links. To achieve this, we employ advanced modulation format and digital signal processing (DSP) techniques in the offline and real-time mode of the operation. The proposed configuration has the capability to support different applications, services, and multiple operators over a shared optical fiber infrastructure.
Part of the book: Optical Communication Technology
Enabling Optical Wired and Wireless Technologies for 5G and Beyond Networks
By Isiaka A. Alimi, Ana Tavares, Cátia Pinho, Abdelgader M. Abdalla, Paulo P. Monteiro and António L. Teixeira
The emerging fifth-generation mobile communications are envisaged to support massive number of deployment scenarios based on the respective use case requirements. The requirements can be efficiently attended with ultradense small-cell cloud radio access network (C-RAN) approach. However, the C-RAN architecture imposes stringent requirements on the transport networks. This book chapter presents high-capacity and low-latency optical wired and wireless networking solutions that are capable of attending to the network demands. Meanwhile, with optical communication evolutions, there has been advent of enhanced photonic integrated circuits (PICs). The PICs are capable of offering advantages such as low-power consumption, high-mechanical stability, low footprint, small dimension, enhanced functionalities, and ease of complex system architectures. Consequently, we exploit the PICs capabilities in designing and developing the physical layer architecture of the second standard of the next-generation passive optical network (NG-PON2) system. Apart from being capable of alleviating the associated losses of the transceiver, the proposed architectures aid in increasing the system power budget. Moreover, its implementation can significantly help in reducing the optical-electrical-optical conversions issue and the required number of optical connections, which are part of the main problems being faced in the miniaturization of network elements. Additionally, we present simulation results for the model validation.
Part of the book: Telecommunication Systems
Spatial Light Modulation as a Flexible Platform for Optical Systems
By Cátia Pinho, Isiaka Alimi, Mário Lima, Paulo Monteiro and António Teixeira
Spatial light modulation is a technology with a demonstrated wide range of applications, especially in optical systems. Among the various spatial light modulator (SLM) technologies, e.g., liquid crystal (LC), magneto-optic, deformable mirror, multiple quantum well, and acoustic-optic Bragg cells, the ones based on liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) have been gaining importance and relevance in a plethora of optical contexts, namely, in telecom, metrology, optical storage, and microdisplays. Their implementation in telecom has enabled the development of high-capacity optical components in system functionalities as multiplexing/demultiplexing, switching and optical signal processing. This technology combines the unique light-modulating properties of LC with the high-performance silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor properties. Different types of modulation, i.e., phase, amplitude or combination of the two, can be achieved. In this book chapter, we address the most relevant applications of phase-only LCoS SLM for optical telecom purposes and the employment of SLM technology in photonic integrated circuits (PICs) (e.g., field-programmable silicon photonic (SiP) circuits and integrated SLM application to create versatile reconfigurable elements). Furthermore, a new SLM-based flexible coupling platform with applications in spatial division multiplexing (SDM) systems (e.g., to efficiently excite different cores in MCF) and characterization/testing of photonic integrated processors will be described.
Part of the book: Telecommunication Systems
Direct and External Hybrid Modulation Approaches for Access Networks
By Adebayo E. Abejide, Madhava R. Kota, Sushma Pandey, Oluyomi Aboderin, Cátia Pinho, Mário Lima and António Teixeira
The demand for low-cost high-speed transmission is a major challenge for 5G future networks. To meet this optical communication demand, holistic and painstaking approaches are required in designing a simplified system model. Since the demands for high bandwidth are growing at unprecedented speed as we approach the Zettabyte era, it is crucial to minimize chromatic dispersion (CD) associated to high bit-rate signals. Mitigating CD electronically comes at high cost which may not be compatible with 5G. Photonic Integrated Circuit (PIC) as an enabler for fast speed optical transmission is still undergoing its growth stage and its major speed and efficiency have not yet been attained. However, proper and right combination of components and approaches can potentiate this technology in a more cost-efficient way. Hybrid modulation (HM)-PIC presents a simplified approach in terms of cost and efficiency for 5G networks. Hybridization of existing modulation components and approaches in PIC can enhance the generation of high bit-rate signals without the need for electrical CD compensation. A detailed study of hybrid multilevel signal modulation concept as a valuable solution for Data Centers (DC) high data-rate signals and next-generation Passive Optical Networks (PONs) is proposed.
Part of the book: Network-on-Chip
Network-on-Chip Topologies: Potentials, Technical Challenges, Recent Advances and Research Direction View all chapters
By Isiaka A. Alimi, Romil K. Patel, Oluyomi Aboderin, Abdelgader M. Abdalla, Ramoni A. Gbadamosi, Nelson J. Muga, Armando N. Pinto and António L. Teixeira
Integration technology advancement has impacted the System-on-Chip (SoC) in which heterogeneous cores are supported on a single chip. Based on the huge amount of supported heterogeneous cores, efficient communication between the associated processors has to be considered at all levels of the system design to ensure global interconnection. This can be achieved through a design-friendly, flexible, scalable, and high-performance interconnection architecture. It is noteworthy that the interconnections between multiple cores on a chip present a considerable influence on the performance and communication of the chip design regarding the throughput, end-to-end delay, and packets loss ratio. Although hierarchical architectures have addressed the majority of the associated challenges of the traditional interconnection techniques, the main limiting factor is scalability. Network-on-Chip (NoC) has been presented as a scalable and well-structured alternative solution that is capable of addressing communication issues in the on-chip systems. In this context, several NoC topologies have been presented to support various routing techniques and attend to different chip architectural requirements. This book chapter reviews some of the existing NoC topologies and their associated characteristics. Also, application mapping algorithms and some key challenges of NoC are considered.
Part of the book: Network-on-Chip