Cell wall of various plants contains an organic polymer lignin. Lignin makes significant structural constituents that support of vascular plants tissues, some types of algae and makes plants stiff and woody. Chemically lignin composed of cross-linked phenolic polymers and Kraft lignin dissolved in the unsaturated resin system. Lignin is a vastly available and well-studied antioxidant. They work as antioxidant against the biological, chemical and mechanical stress on plants. The substance that removes potentially damaged oxidizing agents in a living organism is regarded as antioxidant. Lignin contains a huge amount of phenolic constructions that enable it to act as an effectual antioxidant. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) observed decreases in some oxidative aging products and maintained the idea that lignin play role as an effective antioxidant. It was discovered that antioxidant action of lignin varies with the molecular characteristics, isolation method and genetic origin. Capacity of lignin to scavenge the radicals that are involved in the oxidation is affected by partial dispersion into polymer matrix. Antioxidant activities of various technical lignins are determined. Chemical changes in lignin could result in products with characteristics that can be used in special industrial divisions.
Part of the book: Lignin
Chemotherapeutic agents produce from numerous sources such as animals, plants and micro-organisms are derived from the natural products. Although the existing therapeutic pipeline lacks fungal-derived metabolites, but hundreds of secondary metabolites derived from fungi are known to be possible chemotherapies. Over the past three decades, several secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenolic and polyketides have been developed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae species with exciting activities that considered valued for the growth of new chemotherapeutic agents. Many secondary metabolites are protective compounds which prevent abiotic and biotic stresses, i.e. predation, infection, drought and ultraviolet. Though not taking part in a living cell’s central metabolism, secondary metabolites play an important role in the function of an organism. Nevertheless, due to slow biomass build-up and inadequate synthesis by the natural host the yield of secondary metabolites is low by direct isolation. A detailed comprehension of biosynthetic pathways for development of secondary metabolites are necessary for S. cerevisiae biotransformation. These metabolites have higher inhibitory effect, specificity among cancer and normal cells, and the mechanism of non-apoptotic cell killing. This study shows the significance of bioactive compounds produced by S. cerevisiae species with their possible activity and value in chemotherapeutic drugs pipeline. The isolation and alteration of these natural secondary metabolites would promote the development of chemotherapeutic drugs.
Part of the book: Saccharomyces