Immune cell therapies have been studied in numerous clinical trials using Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMP) against a number of diseases having no or inadequate alternative therapies available, for example, various cancer types, cerebral stroke, cardiac infarction, severe autoimmune disorders, or chronic infections. Despite the enormous number of positive observation in ex vivo or animal studies, convincing results in clinical studies remain scanty. The chapter presents a survey and reveals that the manufacturing of immune cells especially for clinical trials is until today primarily performed using archaic, scarcely controlled, and incomparable processes and methods. A deeper characterization of ex vivo expanded immune cells is urgently needed not only on the level of a few receptors and ligands on the cell surface but also with respect to the ever-contained subtypes in an expanded immune cell population, the pattern of secreted effector molecules, and their amounts over time and influences from in vivo components on them.
Part of the book: Stem Cells in Clinical Practice and Tissue Engineering