Despite the significant achievements in the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, the mortality rate of these patients still remains high. Nutritional status disorders (NSD) are considered now as one of the prognostic risk factors not only for dialysis but also for predialysis CKD stages. Since the publication of KDIGO 2012 guidelines for CKD patient’s management, there has been some significant advancement in our understanding of main NSD mechanisms in CKD, including different nosological group patients (first, in diabetic and systemic diseases patients). At the same time, there is still an urgent need for randomized trials for better-informed decisions and future optimization of CKD patients’ care. This chapter provides the current data on all aspects of NSD in CKD: etiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment approaches, as well as on risk factors of NSD at predialysis stages and in chronic hemodialysis patients. Considerable attention was devoted to the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of NSD in CKD patients. It was determined that the overall strategy for dietary treatment contributed to improving the life quality of patients and slowing down of CKD progression. The review is written based on the published results of clinical studies performed on the position of evidence-based medicine.
Part of the book: Chronic Kidney Disease