Gemini cationic surfactants are compounds which are composed of two hydrophilic head groups and two hydrophobic tails linked by a spacer at the head groups or closed to them. The spacer can be either hydrophobic or hydrophilic. It can be rigid or flexible. The neutral charge of the molecule is retained by the presence of organic or inorganic counterions. Critical micelle concentrations (CMCs), surface tension (γ) and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) are dozen times lower than corresponding parameters of monomeric surfactants. The unique properties of gemini surfactants with a wide range of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) make them a very useful, innovative material in detergents, cosmetics, personal care products, additives for paints and coatings, biocides, material science, organic synthesis, pharmacy, textiles, enhanced oil recovery, nanotechnology, petroleum and many other branches of life. A large number of papers concerning gemini surfactants have been published so far. This review presents a synthetic look at current work devoted to structure, synthesis and applications of gemini surfactants.
Part of the book: Application and Characterization of Surfactants
Organic corrosion inhibitors are one of the five ways, besides material selection, design, cathodic protection and coatings, to protect materials against corrosion. Corrosion is an ubiquitous phenomena that deteriorates all materials, metals, plastics, glass and concrete. The costs of corrosion are tremendous and amounts to 4.0% of gross domestic product (GDP) in USA. The similar losses of GDP are noted in all countries around the world. At this point of time, there is no way to completely stop the corrosion processes. Some new solutions can only slow this process. Organic corrosion inhibitors are widely used in industry because of their effectiveness at wide range of temperatures, compatibility with protected materials, good solubility in water, low costs and relatively low toxicity. Organic corrosion inhibitors adsorb on the surface to form protective film which displace water and protect it against deteriorating. Effective organic corrosion inhibitors contain nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur and phosphorus with lone electron pairs as well can contain structural moieties with π-electrons that interact with metal favoring the adsorption process. This review presents mechanisms and monitoring of corrosion, laboratory methods for corrosion study, relationship between structure and efficacy of corrosion inhibitions, theoretical approach to design new inhibitors and some aspects of biocorrosion.
Part of the book: Corrosion Inhibitors, Principles and Recent Applications