Behçet’s disease (BD) is a multisystemic autoimmune inflammatory disorder characterized by oral aphthous lesions, genital ulcerations, iridocyclitis with hypopyon, and skin lesions. While ocular manifestations occur in nearly 50% of the patients with Behçet’s disease, ocular involvement is the initial manifestation in only less than 20% of the patients. Ocular Behçet’s disease clinically presents iridocyclitis with or without hypopyon, vitritis, retinitis, occlusive retinal vasculitis, and cystoid macular edema. However, anterior uveitis is usually the only initial ocular manifestation; the most common form is panuveitis. The usual course of the disease is characterized by recurrent inflammatory periods. Recurrent inflammatory attacks may result in irreversible damage and significant visual loss. Early and effective treatment is required to prevent ocular morbidity. Recent developments in the treatment of ocular Behçet’s disease like biological agents are promising with a rapid effect and high remission rates.
Part of the book: Behcet's Disease