The urban landscape has many impacts on the local climate such as reduced average wind speed due to the blocking effect of buildings and greater frequency of flash flooding owing to the higher proportion of ground sealed with concrete and asphalt and a corresponding reduction in natural drainage. Detailed estimate of climate change impacts and landscape modifications on water resources at the regional and local level are currently inaccurate due to inadequate data for water cycle and hydrogeology relations. Physical planning though equipped with modern means and best technologies is still lagging behind from the hands of urban planners due to their insufficient knowledge of natural systems and their correlations. Physical development as part of regional development such as construction of buildings, housings, roads, bridges and public utilities are continuously increasing due to the development in all sectors. Physical developments require land space and give positive impacts for the benefits of the people. However, it also creates negative impacts to the physical environment. It can be understood since a physical development is directly related to the land where constructions stand on, where water occurs as a source for water supply of men living on it and where the air is available for supporting life.
Part of the book: Management of Cities and Regions