Cancer prevalence is scaling up each year. Anthracycline groups are still the best chemotherapeutic agent. The most popular anticancer drug in the group is doxorubicin (DOX). Unfortunately, DOX has potent toxicity on noncancerous tissues, e.g., heart, kidneys, etc. However, it is well documented that the severest toxicity of the drug affects heart tissue. Of course, some reasons have been suggested why and/or how the heart is so vulnerable to toxicity. The primary mechanism responsible for DOX’s cardiospecific toxicity remains unidentified so far; however, mitochondrial dysfunction induced by DOX is now considered one of the leading reasons for DOX’s toxicities and undesired side effects. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen production in the heart is a significant contributor to developing mitochondrial dysfunction-exposed DOX based on a variety of evidence. The objective of this review chapter is to critically evaluate and highlight the role of mitochondria in the development of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity.
Part of the book: Mitochondrial Diseases