Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a wireless network that consists of spatially distributed autonomous devices using sensors to cooperatively investigate physical or environmental conditions. WSN has a hundreds or thousands of nodes that can communicate with each other and pass data from one node to another. Energy can be supplied to sensor nodes by batteries only and they are configured in a harsh environment in which the batteries cannot be charged or recharged simply. Sensor nodes can be randomly installed and they autonomously organize themselves into a communication network. The main constraint in wireless sensor networks is limited energy supply at the sensor nodes so it is important to deploy the sink at a position with respect to the specific area which is the area of interest; which would result in minimization of energy consumption. Sink repositioning is very important in modern day wireless sensor network since repositioning the sink at regular interval of time can balance the traffic load thereby decreasing the failure rate of the real time packets. More attention needs to be given on the Sink repositioning methods in order to increase the efficiency of the network. Existing work on sink repositioning techniques in wireless sensor networks consider only static and mobile sink. Not much importance is given to the hybrid sink deployment techniques. Multiple sink deployment and sink mobility can be considered to perform sink repositioning. Precise information of the area being monitored is needed to offer an ideal solution by the sink deployment method but this method is not a realistic often. To reallocate the sink, its odd pattern of energy must be considered. In this chapter a hybrid sink repositioning technique is developed for wireless sensor network where static and mobile sinks are used to gather the data from the sensor nodes. The nodes with low residual energy and high data generation rate are categorized as urgent and the nodes with high residual energy and low data generation rate are categorized as non-urgent. Static sink located within the center of the network collects the data from the urgent nodes. A relay is selected for each urgent sensor based on their residual energy. The urgent sensor sends their data to the static sink through these relay. Mobile sink collects the data from the non-urgent sensors. The performance of the proposed technique is compared with mobile base station placement scheme mainly based on the performance according to the metrics such as average end-to-end delay, drop, average packet delivery ratio and average energy consumption. Through the simulation results it is observed that the proposed hybrid sink repositioning technique reduces the energy hold problem and minimizes the buffer overflow problem thereby elongating the sensor network lifetime.
Part of the book: Wireless Sensor Networks