Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are particularly susceptible to cardiovascular complications, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for more than 50% of all deaths in this population. Cardiac diseases are independently associated with a deterioration of renal function and worsening of existing kidney disease. On the other hand, chronic kidney disease is an independent risk factor for increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It has a complex pathogenesis, and traditional risk factors are not able to fully explain its high incidence and prevalence. Several substances have been identified, and they seem to play important roles in different physiological functions. This chapter will review traditional risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and left ventricular hypertrophy. The most relevant bibliography will be referred, and also interventional studies will be discussed. Other new emerging factors associated with the osteomineral metabolism have been described, mainly in advanced stages of CKD, and frequently are associated with higher cardiovascular risk, which in turn will contribute to the unfavorable prognosis of this population.
Part of the book: Chronic Kidney Disease