Reproductive activity of the goat begins when the females reach puberty, which happens at 5 months of age. The ovarian or estrous cycle is the period between two consecutive estrus. It is also the time that lasts the development of the follicle in the ovary, until rupture occurs and ovulation takes place, which coincides with the appearance of estrus. This chapter will describe the physiological and endocrinological bases of estrus in the goat. Likewise, factors affecting the presence of estrus and ovulation will be described. At another point, synchronization of estrus and ovulation, factors affecting the presence of estrus and external symptoms of estrus, will be described. To achieve synchronization of estrus or induction of ovulation within or outside the breeding season, it may be necessary to manage light hours, male effect, and/or use of hormones. The importance of artificial insemination is described, as well as the current situation of this technique worldwide. Currently, the techniques of artificial insemination in goats have been limited worldwide, due to the lack of resources of producers and trained technicians. The techniques of artificial insemination with estrous synchronization programs and ovulation with current research results will be described.
Part of the book: Goat Science