Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common reproductive endocrine diseases occurs among women of childbearing age, which is affected by many factors, but its precise pathophysiology has not yet been determined. The heterogeneous of PCOS is reflected in its complex endocrine dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) and its multiple clinical features, such as obesity, insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism and anovulation. Meanwhile, women with PCOS also have an increased risk of major cardiovascular events, most notably type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. So far, many therapies are available for improving reproductive and metabolic abnormalities in PCOS patients, in which lifestyle modification and insulin-sensitizing agents are more effective management strategies.
Part of the book: Testes and Ovaries