Microvesicles (MVs) are small spherical fragments of plasma membrane between 50 and 1000 nm in diameter. MVs arise through direct outward budding and fission of the plasma membrane. As almost all cells, human red blood cells (RBCs) are able to release MVs into extracellular environment under stimulating or storage conditions. Recently, it has been known that MVs not only play a role in homeostasis but also have diverse functions in cell-cell interactions and in the pathogenesis of diseases. In this chapter, the formation and release of MVs from human RBCs have been described. In addition, MVs have demonstrated to be potential vehicle for transport of nucleic acid and other molecules to the target cells. Although RBC-derived MVs are potential material for the development of delivery systems, it is still a great challenge to the clinical application. Future research should pay more attention to MVs as biological targets for diagnosis and practical therapeutics of cancer and other diseases.