Flavonoids, which possess a basic C15 phenyl‐benzopyrone skeleton, refer to a series of compounds in which two benzene rings (ring A and B) are connected to each other through three carbon atoms. Based on their core structure, flavonoids can be grouped into different flavonoid classes, such as flavonols, flavones, flavanones, flavanonols, anthocyanidins, isoflavones and chalcones. Flavonoids are often hydroxylated in positions 3, 5, 7, 3′, 4′ and/or 5′. Frequently, one or more of these hydroxyl groups are methylated, acetylated, prenylated or sulfated. In plants, flavonoids are often present as O‐ or C‐glycosides. The O‐glycosides have sugar substituents bound to a hydroxyl group of the aglycone, usually located at position 3 or 7, whereas the C‐glycosides have sugar groups bound to a carbon of the aglycone, usually 6‐C or 8‐C. The most common carbohydrates are rhamnose, glucose, galactose and arabinose. This chapter mainly introduces the methods of isolation and structure identification of flavonoids.
Part of the book: Flavonoids