Material processing and service loads in different lifecycle stages of a product—ranging from semi-finished goods to operating structures—lead to an unfavorable superposition of residual stresses, especially of micro- and macro-residual stresses. Whereas near-surface compressive stress is often desired as it prolongs the useful service life, undesired, steep stress gradients and tensile stress at the surface promote the occurrence of cracks and wear during operation, ultimately leading to expensive and possibly dangerous premature component failure. Reliable management of the residual stress condition significantly contributes to the assessment and optimization of a part’s or component’s lifetime. Therefore, the nondestructive evaluation of residual stress in objects of different scales reaching from laboratory samples over semi-finished products up to operating components and structures has gained significant importance in the latest decades. Micromagnetic and ultrasonic methods are based on the interaction of an external magnetic field or an ultrasonic wave, respectively, with the material’s microstructure and residual stress fields on different scales and in different depths from the material surface. The present contribution provides an overview regarding the local and volumetric measurement, characterization and evaluation of macro- and micro-residual stress by means of micromagnetic and ultrasonic techniques.
Part of the book: New Challenges in Residual Stress Measurements and Evaluation