Melanoma, which is the most malignant skin cancer type, has got one of the fastest increasing incidence rates of all cancer types in the world. When belatedly diagnosed, melanoma is extremely invasive and metastatic. Although there are effective drugs used to treat melanoma, some cell lines have proven resistant to chemotherapy. In this context, several research groups on natural products have investigated the anticancer effect of new natural molecules in the treatment of melanoma. Flavonoids have shown to play an important role in chemoprevention and inhibition of the proliferation, migration, and invasion of melanoma cells. In this chapter, we present a systematic review performed through a literature search over a period of 20 years, using specialized databases. Analysis of all selected manuscripts demonstrated that at least 97 flavonoids have already been investigated for the treatment of melanoma using in vitro or in vivo models. Most of the bioactive flavonoids belong to the classes of flavones (38.0%), flavonols (17.5%), or isoflavonoids (17.5%). Apigenin, diosmin, fisetin, luteolin, and quercetin were considered as the most studied flavonoids for melanoma treatment. In general, flavonoids have shown to be a promising source of molecules with great potential for the treatment of melanoma.
Part of the book: Natural Products and Cancer Drug Discovery