This chapter presents an application of multi-agent systems to simulate tsunami-triggered mass evacuations of large urban areas. The main objective is to quantitatively evaluate various strategies to accelerate evacuation in case of a tsunami with a short arrival time, taking most influential factors into account. Considering the large number of lives in fatal danger, instead of widely used simple agents in 1D networks, we use a high-resolution model of environment and complex agents so that wide range of influencing factors can be taken into account. A brief description of the multi-agent system is provided using a mathematical framework as means to easily and unambiguously refer to the main components of the system. The environment of the multi-agent system, which mimics the physical world of evacuees, is modelled as a hybrid of a high-resolution grid and a graph connecting traversable spaces. This hybrid of raster and vector data structures enables modelling large domain in a scalable manner. The agents, which mimic the heterogeneous crowd of evacuees, are composed of different combinations of basic constituent functions for modelling interaction with each other and environment, decision-making, etc. The results of tuning and validating of constituent functions for pedestrian-pedestrian, car-car and car-pedestrian interactions are presented. A scalable high-performance computing (HPC) extension to address the high-computational demand of complex agents and high-resolution model of environment is briefly explained. Finally, demonstrative applications that highlight the need for including sub-meter details in the environment, different modes of evacuation and behavioural differences are presented.
Part of the book: Multi-agent Systems