In the environment, there are polluting substances that can cause adverse reactions in human beings when entering the body through different ways (ingestion, inhalation, injection, or absorption). The main pollutants can be poisons, chemical compounds, toxic gases, and bacterial toxins. These can be found in different places and their effects depend on the dose and exposure time. Furthermore, foodborne diseases (FBDs) can cause disability; these diseases can be caused by toxins produced by bacteria or other toxic substances in the food, which can cause severe diarrhea, toxic shock syndrome, debilitating infections such as meningitis and even death. FBDs are transmitted through food contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms that have multiple factors of virulence, which gives them the ability to cause an infection; some bacterial genres can produce toxins directly in the food, but other genres can produce them once they have colonized the intestine. Among the pathogens involved in FBDs that are also considered to be toxigenic are Salmonella spp., Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes. Foodborne diseases can be prevented and acute diarrhea syndromes, fever and even death from dehydration can be avoided, especially in children under the age of 5 and in immunocompromised people.
Part of the book: Poisoning