Neuroblastoma (NB) is one of the major challenges of pediatric oncology with a 5‐year survival rate of less than 40% despite intense therapy. The aggressiveness of the disease has been recently correlated to the degree of myeloid cells infiltrating the tumor. Together with the tumor cells and immunosuppressive cytokines (e.g., IL‐10 and TGF‐β), these cells hamper the generation of an efficient antitumor immune response and, therefore, favor tumor growth and metastasis. Novel therapeutic approaches are designed to target immune cells instead of cancer cells. To improve their efficacy, recent cancer immunotherapy strategies have focused on the depletion, blockade, or reprogramming of these tolerogenic immune effectors. Therefore, the principal clinical challenge is currently to identify therapeutic strategies which could overcome the primary and secondary resistances to these cancer immunotherapies. In this review, we discuss the dialogue of immune microenvironment of neuroblastoma and the immunotherapeutic strategies to cure neuroblastoma.
Part of the book: Neuroblastoma