Iron deficiency anaemia as the most common nutrition disorder has only marginal reduction globally during recent decades, with the highest burden in pregnant women and young children. Insufficient iron storage and/or excessive loss of iron are common causes of iron deficiency anaemia. Therefore, understanding the complexity of the regulatory network required to maintain iron homeostasis and identifying the functional variants associated with iron metabolism should be fundamental and crucial to control and treat the iron deficiency anaemia. Sensitive and inexpensive measures to distinguish iron deficiency anaemia from the other kinds of anaemia should be developed for precise treatment. Original disease treatments combined with oral or intravenous iron therapy are key approaches in clinical practices. The integrated, multifactorial and multi‐sectoral approach with food‐based strategy and iron supplementation as the leading public health inventions is required to achieve iron deficiency anaemia control target. This chapter will focus on the advanced knowledge associated with iron metabolism, disease burden and health consequences of iron deficiency anaemia in different life course, newly parameters development in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia, therapy choice in clinical practice and public health strategies to reduce iron deficiencies in high‐burden areas.
Part of the book: Current Topics in Anemia