Plotting two straight line graphs from the experimental data and determining the point of their intersection solve a number of problems in analytical chemistry (i.e., potentiometric and conductometric titrations, the composition of metal-chelate complexes and binding interactions as ligand-protein). The relation between conductometric titration and the volume of titrant added lead to segmented linear titration curves, the endpoint being defined by the intersection of the two straight line segments. The estimation of the statistical uncertainty of the end point of intersecting straight lines is a topic scarcely treated in detail in a textbook or specialized analytical monographs. For this reason, a detailed treatment with that purpose in mind is addressed in this chapter. The theoretical basis of a variety of methods such as first-order propagation of variance (random error propagation law), Fieller’s theorem and two approaches based on intersecting confidence bands are explained in detail. Several experimental systems described in the literature are the subject of study, with the aim of gaining knowledge and experience in the application of the possible methods of uncertainty estimation. Finally, the developed theory has been applied to the conductivity measurements in triplicate in the titration of a mixture of hydrochloric acid and acetic acid with potassium hydroxide.
Part of the book: Advances in Titration Techniques