Constant technological progress, as well as the pursuit of “friendly” technologies, leads to intensive work on the development of a new generation of advanced products with strictly defined, unique physicochemical properties dedicated to specific applications. This group of materials includes hybrids based on titanium dioxide and its derivatives, characterised with specific, well-defined physicochemical and structural properties, chiefly determined during their synthesis. Different properties of titania nanoparticles depend on their morphology, crystallite size, and crystalline structure. Nanocrystalline titanium dioxide can be synthesised via different methods, among which chemical precipitation, microemulsion method (inversed micelles), sol-gel process and hydrothermal crystallisation are the most important ones. That is why, a crucial part of the following chapter will be paid to characterisation of synthesis routes used for titanium dioxide and titania-based hybrid production. Furthermore, application of TiO2-based materials, including mixed oxide systems as well as graphene oxide–based hybrids, in electrochemical (electrode material) and environmental (photocatalysis) aspects, will be described in detail.
Part of the book: Titanium Dioxide
A very important topic in present-day research is the depolymerization of lignin, meaning the multi-parametric decomposition of the biopolymer into low-molecular-weight products (monomers) by breaking of the intermolecular bonds. Depolymerization can occur under many different factors, such as high temperature or catalysts, which determine the mechanism of disintegration. In the case of lignin, this process is carried out in order to obtain many valuable low-molecular-weight compounds. It is becoming more and more popular as a result of the use of ionic liquids, but methods using alkaline, acidic, and metallic catalysts, as well as pyrolysis and supercritical fluids, are also known. All of these methods will be described in detail in this chapter.
Part of the book: Lignin
The overarching objective of the chapter is to acquaint the readers with the topic associated with the production of abrasive tools and presentation of the most significant research results regarding the determination of the most important functional properties of selected additives (described in the literature and established on the basis of authors’ own scientific experiences). The studies regarding various additives, which were characterized in detail in the literature, were mainly based on thorough physicochemical and microstructural analysis as well as the determination of basic strength and thermos-mechanic parameters. The attempt to implement alternative cross-linking agents, which would result in the limited release of volatile organic compounds, is also of great importance in terms of production of environmentally friendly final products. A subsequent aim is to attract the attention of a wide range of readers and popularize the topic associated with conventional abrasive materials and next-generation abrasive compositions.
Part of the book: Abrasive Technology