Drug Hypersensitivity reactions can be distinguished in adverse drug events and adverse drug reactions. They represent a major problem in the medical scheme, since they are often underestimated. Pharmacogenetic analysis demonstrated significant associations between emerging hypersensitivity reactions and distinct genes of the HLA complex. HLA-mediated hypersensitivity reactions particularly affect skin and liver, however, impairment of the bone marrow and kidney function could also be observed. These life threatening medical conditions can be attributed to the activation of autologous drug-specific T-cells. Severe drug hypersensitivity reactions that resemble acute GvHD are linked to certain specific HLA alleles. The most common hypersensitivity reactions occur after the treatment of HLA-B*57:01+ HIV patients with abacavir and HLA-A*31:01+ or B*15:02+ epileptic patients with carbamazepine (CBZ).
Part of the book: Physiology and Pathology of Immunology