Drug Hypersensitivity reactions can be distinguished in adverse drug events and adverse drug reactions. They represent a major problem in the medical scheme, since they are often underestimated. Pharmacogenetic analysis demonstrated significant associations between emerging hypersensitivity reactions and distinct genes of the HLA complex. HLA-mediated hypersensitivity reactions particularly affect skin and liver, however, impairment of the bone marrow and kidney function could also be observed. These life threatening medical conditions can be attributed to the activation of autologous drug-specific T-cells. Severe drug hypersensitivity reactions that resemble acute GvHD are linked to certain specific HLA alleles. The most common hypersensitivity reactions occur after the treatment of HLA-B*57:01+ HIV patients with abacavir and HLA-A*31:01+ or B*15:02+ epileptic patients with carbamazepine (CBZ).
Part of the book: Physiology and Pathology of Immunology
Positive and negative selection in the thymus relies on T-cell receptor recognition of peptides presented by HLA molecules and determines the repertoire of T cells. Immune competent T-lymphocytes target cells display nonself or pathogenic peptides in complex with their cognate HLA molecule. A peptide passes several selection processes before being presented in the peptide binding groove of an HLA molecule; here the sequence of the HLA molecule’s heavy chain determines the mode of peptide recruitment. During inflammatory processes, the presentable peptide repertoire is obviously altered compared to the healthy state, while the peptide loading pathway undergoes modifications as well. The presented peptides dictate the fate of the HLA expressing cell through their (1) sequence, (2) topology, (3) origin (self/nonself). Therefore, the knowledge about peptide competition and presentation in the context of alloreactivity, infection or pathogenic invasion is of enormous significance. Since in adoptive cellular therapies transferred cells should exclusively target peptide-HLA complexes they are primed for, one of the most crucial questions remains at what stage of viral infection viral peptides are presented preferentially over self-peptides. The systematic analyzation of peptide profiles under healthy or pathogenic conditions is the key to immunological success in terms of personalized therapeutics.
Part of the book: Polypeptide