Concerns with the final destination of organic solid waste (OSW) generated in rural areas originate from the possibility of this waste harming the environment, in addition to producing bad smell and attracting pests, when improperly disposed of in the soil. In this sense, composting might be a suitable way of dealing with this residue. This chapter presents the advantage of treating rural OSW through composting in reactors. Facultative reactors present the advantage of not requiring handling or large areas for the waste processing, and they do not generate bad smell and do not attract pests, which represent common drawbacks of the conventional windrow composting process. The final product of this composting process can be used as fertilizer for crops, resulting in the economy, since commercial fertilizers do not have to be bought. Works carried out by the Analytical and Environmental Chemistry Research Group at the State University of Ponta Grossa—Brazil have reported important results regarding the use of facultative reactors with different OSW mixtures. From the monitoring of physical, chemical, biological and spectroscopic parameters, it was seen that composting in facultative reactors produced stable compost matured in a short period of time.
Part of the book: Solid Waste Management in Rural Areas
In Brazil, 31% of household food expenses are spent on meals eaten outside of the home. The food service sector is a major consumer of resources (water, energy, food, and other materials), and generator of solid waste (SW) food, being a focus of concern of national and international organizations, given their potential economic, social, and environmental impacts caused by the final disposal of solid waste. This work problematizes the generation of solid waste during the production of meals for collectivities and presents the study carried out in three community restaurants located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The solid waste generated in all stages of the meal production process was weighed. Food leftovers and food scraps were the solid waste generated in greater quantity in the three restaurants studied, showing the need for better planning of the menus and the quantities of preparations produced, since these residues are closely related to the acceptance of the menu and to the waste of food. An organic solid waste management plan has been proposed based on environmental performance evaluation during large-scale meal production.
Part of the book: Municipal Solid Waste Management