Interest on biofuel production from biomass and biofiber has gain great attention globally because these materials are abundant, inexpensive, renewable, and sustainable. Generally, the conversion of biomass and biofiber to biofuel involves several processes including biomass production, pretreatment, hydrolysis, and fermentation. Selecting the most efficient pretreatment is crucial to ensure the success of biofuel production since pretreatment has been reported to contribute substantial portion on the production cost. The main goal of the pretreatment is to enhance digestibility of the biomass and biofiber, and to increase sugar production prior to fermentation process. To date, several pretreatment methods have been introduced to pretreat biomass and biofiber including irradiation. This book chapter reviews and discusses different leading irradiation pretreatment technologies along with their mechanism involved during pretreatment of various tropical biomass and biofiber. This chapter also reviews the effect of irradiation pretreatment on the biomass and biofiber component, which could assist the enzymatic saccharification process.
Part of the book: Radiation Effects in Materials
Earth processes, which occur in land, air and ocean in different environment and at different scales, are very complex. Flooding is also a part of the complex processes, which need to be assessed accurately to know the accurate spatial and temporal changes of flooding and their causes. Hydrological modelling has been used by several researchers in river and floodplain modelling for flood analysis. In this chapter, factors affecting flash flood, possible options of basic input parameters in one- and two-dimensional hydrological models in data sparse environment, some case studies and uncertainty in hydrological modelling were discussed. This discussion will help the readers to understand the flooding factors, selection of input parameters in data sparse environment, a brief insight of one- and two-dimensional hydrological models and uncertainties in their input and model parameters and model structures.
Part of the book: Flood Risk Management
Groundwater system is very vital to humanity and the ecosystem. Aquifers are determined based on the absence or presence of water table positioning, that is, confined, unconfined, leaky aquifers and fractured aquifers. The objective of this chapter is to discuss the characteristic and assessment of groundwater within the scope of vertical distribution of GW, types of the aquifer system, types of SW-GW interface, and SW-GW interaction at both local and regional scales. The properties of the aquifer depend on the physical characteristics of the materials (porosity, permeability, specific yield, specific storage, and hydraulic conductivities) which are determined by techniques like resistivity surveys and pumping tests followed by remote sensing and geographic information system for better information on the groundwater system. Furthermore, understanding the SW-GW interactions through available methods (seepage meter, heat tracer, and environmental tracer) is useful in watershed management, that is, risk management and assessment of the aquifer system.
Part of the book: Groundwater Management and Resources