Energy evaluation together with greenhouse gas mitigation goes a long way in sustaining the growth and economy of a nation. Various evaluation methods have been adopted by researchers, academia and various country wise energy department ministries to achieve this aim. The most effective method is the hybrid evaluation method. This takes into consideration strength of a particular method to overcome the weakness of another method. This chapter focuses on a recently proven integrated method on energy and greenhouse gas studies—integrated IDA‐ANN‐DEA (index decomposition analysis—artificial neural network—data envelopment analysis). Case studies were exemplified using this approach in evaluating possible energy potential that could be saved in the manufacturing industries in Canada and South Africa as well as a particular food and beverage industry. Another case study focused on the amount of possible greenhouse gas that could be mitigated in the Canadian industry. The hybrid model proved very useful in its analysis.
Part of the book: Research and Development Evolving Trends and Practices
The concern for environmental related impacts of the cement industry is fast growing in recent times. The industry is challenged with high environmental impact which spans through the entire production process. Life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluates the environmental impact of product or process throughout the cycle of production. This can be done using either or both midpoint (process-oriented) and endpoint (damage-oriented) approaches of life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). This study assessed the environmental impact of 1 kg Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) using both approaches of LCIA. This analysis was carried out using a data modeled after the rest of the world other than China, India, Europe, US and Switzerland. The dataset was taken from Ecoinvent database incorporated in the SimaPro 9.0.49 software. The result of the analysis showed that clinker production phase produced the highest impact and CO2 is the highest pollutant emitter at both endpoint and midpoint approaches. This is responsible for global warming known to affect both human health and the ecosystem. Also, toxicity in form of emission of high copper affects the ecosystem as well as humans. In addition, high fossil resources (crude oil) are consumed and pose the possibility for scarcity.
Part of the book: Product Life Cycle