The liposomes present great potential for applications in targeted delivery of chemotherapeutics in the treatment of cancer. The use of liposomal drug carriers as vehicles for targeting of chemotherapeutic agents to tumor tissues is based on their advantages over other dosage forms, represented by their low systemic toxicity, their bioavailability, and their possibility to enhance the solubility of different chemotherapeutic agents, due to the ability to encapsulate both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs. They enhance the therapeutic index of anticancer drugs by increasing the drug concentration in tumor cells through tumor targeting. The available approaches used for tumor targeting using liposomes are passive targeting, active targeting, and triggered drug release. The most advanced targeting strategies proposed for cancer treatment are the development of multifunctional liposomes, having combined targeting mechanism. In this chapter, the tumor-targeting mechanisms are described in detail as well as the possibilities to design the targeted liposomal nanocarrier in order to reach the desired target in the body and minimizing the off-target effects. Moreover, the current status of preclinical and clinical evaluation is highlighted.
Part of the book: Liposomes
Adhesives can be defined as social substances capable to join permanently to surfaces, by an adhesive process. This process involves two dissimilar bodies being held in intimate contact such that mechanical force or work can be transferred across the interface. Since their early discovery by the Egyptians—3300 years ago—intensive research efforts have been made with the purpose of obtaining high-quality, biocompatible adhesives. Bitumen, tree pitches and beeswax—used in ancient and mediaeval times—were replaced by rubber cements and natural and synthetic components; nowadays, the focus is being mostly on eco-friendly adhesives. Starting with a brief history of adhesive use, this chapter then proceeds to cover the main industrial, biomedical and pharmaceutical applications of adhesives. Additionally, we focus on the new generation of adhesives, based on modern technologies such as nanotechnology, derivatised polymers, and biomimetic adhesives. The limited raw materials and the negative impact of synthetic adhesives on both human health and environment impose that further research is conducted with regard to renewable materials, in order to obtain environmentally safe bioadhesives that best fit their applicability domains.
Part of the book: Applied Adhesive Bonding in Science and Technology