This chapter reviews the effects of vitamin C on metal-induced genotoxicity. By focusing on cutting-edge studies, including our own results in experiments with vanadium(V) and chromium(VI), the suggestion that vitamin C can be used effectively to protect against or reduce the genotoxic effects induced by metal exposure by suppressing oxidative stress is particularly explored. After explaining the chemical mechanisms involved in oxidative stress associated with heavy metals, this chapter discusses the various proposals regarding the physiological processes of vitamin C at the molecular level, its relationship with oxidative stress, levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG, 7,8-dihy-dro-8-oxodeoxyguanosine) and apoptosis, and its role in the protection and modulation of DNA damage, as well as how they fit with our own results that showed an increase in apoptosis and 8-OH-dG when vitamin C was administered in addition to the metallic compounds. The relevant gaps in our understanding of the role of vitamin C with regard to these issues are highlighted, as well as the key importance of its clinical use, and ultimately, human health.
Part of the book: Vitamin C
In this chapter, the proposal that green tea polyphenols can be used effectively to protect against genotoxic effects associated with hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) exposure is analyzed. After explaining the chemical mechanisms involved in oxidative stress associated with the reduction of Cr(VI) compounds, the relationship between green tea polyphenols and oxidative stress is analyzed. Particular emphasis is given in elucidating how these proposals fit with our own experimental results with green tea polyphenols and Cr(VI) compounds, which show an increase of apoptotic cells and a decrease in micronucleus frequency. Finally, the gaps in our understanding of the role of green tea and its polyphenols, as well as their key importance to human health, are highlighted.
Part of the book: Polyphenols