Liver cirrhosis is irreversible and mostly ends up with complete loss of liver function/end‐stage liver failure, and the only proven treatment is liver transplantation. Scarcity of donor, high cost, lifelong immunosuppression, and surgical complications are the major issues associated with liver transplantation and these urge to look for alternate therapeutic approaches. Advancements in the field of regenerative medicine are arising hope for the treatment of liver cirrhosis. This chapter deals with the scope of liver regenerative medicine in the treatment of liver cirrhosis. Review of the literature showed that liver regenerative medicine no doubt holds great promises and added a lot of hope to the cure of liver diseases. Primarily, cell‐based therapies had shown great potential to treat liver cirrhosis. Successful clinical human trials further strengthen their significance in the field. However, recent trends in liver regenerative medicine are focusing on the development of tissue engineering leading to generation of the whole organ. Despite advantages, liver regenerative medicine has several limitations and sometimes been over‐optimistically interpreted. In conclusion, the current scenario advocates to conduct more preclinical and clinical trials to effectively replace liver transplantation with liver regenerative medicine to treat liver diseases.
Part of the book: Liver Cirrhosis
Genetic engineering is the most powerful technology of this century which is dramatically revolutionizing the agriculture, health, pharmaceutical, and food industries all over the world. Transcriptomics and genetic engineering go hand in hand from the development of a genetically modified organism (GMO) to its utilization by the humans. Transcriptome analysis is the analysis of messenger RNAs (mRNAs), which are produced by transcription of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in an organism in response to a specific internal/external environment. Transcriptome analysis is not only useful to dig out the potential target genes for genetic modifications but also utilized to study the proper functioning of a genetically engineered gene, evaluation of the GMO for biosafety risks and for monitoring the presence and movement of GMO. Despite huge scope of genetic engineering, these manipulations can upset the natural balance of a genome by insertional, soma clonal, and pleiotropic effects of a foreign gene resulting in unintended alterations along with the targeted changes. The untargeted alterations pose risks to environment and health of animals and plants. In this chapter, the key advancements in the field of biotechnology and the relevant biosafety issues are reviewed. The advantages and limitations of the current methods used for the evaluation, monitoring, and regulation of GMOs are discussed.
Part of the book: Applications of RNA-Seq and Omics Strategies