Fatty Acids in Veterinary Medicine and Research
Fatty acid regulation is an essential process for all animals. A number of studies have shown that diet affects the levels/availability of fatty acids in the body but increasingly an evidence shows that disease states can alter the amounts within the body too. Fatty acid levels and availability have been altered by a number of diseases, disorders and reactions including inflammatory responses, heart disease and heart failure and wound repair. They are also essential during the growth and development stages of animals. The amount of research into the consequences of different fatty acid intake and levels in various disease states and during development has increased in both humans and animals. This review presents an overview of the research undertaken to date and highlights the importance, uses and benefits of understanding the roles of fatty acids in both the healthy animals and animals under differing disorders and diseases.
Part of the book: Fatty Acids
Computed Tomography in Veterinary Medicine: Currently Published and Tomorrow's Vision
The utilisation of computed tomography (CT) in veterinary practise has been increasing rapidly in line with reduced cost, improved availability and the increase in expertise and technology. This review briefly examines the recent technological advancements in imaging in the veterinary sector, and explores how CT and micro-computed tomography (μCT) have furthered basic understanding and knowledge, and influenced clinical practise and medicine. The uses of CT technology in veterinary research, especially in relation to bone, vasculature and soft tissues are explored and compared in relation to the different species. CT is essential not only for the diagnosis and treatment of many disorders, but it is now being used to understand areas ranging from drug delivery and surgical advancements through to anatomical and educational uses throughout the world.
Part of the book: Computed Tomography
Is Your Extra X Chromosome Holding You Back? An Insight into Female Education and Academic Careers in STEMM
This review discusses whether gender inequality still exists within medical, scientific and engineering academia, with regards to the career development of academic staff. In the 1970s it was suggested that women who are talented and educated with family responsibilities tend to come across problems of self-confidence and identity when attempting to enhance their professional careers, and although many are successful in doing so, others find it more challenging. By the 1990s, it was indicated that the main gender inequality mechanism in academia is the commonly known fact that women’s career development in the academic hierarchy is slower than that of men. In the past 50 years, laws and attitudes of many societies, industries and countries, have changed to promote gender equality. What is the impact of these changes, does inequality still exist and what mechanisms exist to address these issues? This review looks in depth at the links between gender equality and continuing personal and professional development (CPPD), in which individuals at work are educated more about the workplace environment and their job roles and performance. The different types, requirements and success rates of CPPD within the scientific (especially medical) academic community is discussed with an emphasis on gender equality.
Part of the book: New Pedagogical Challenges in the 21st Century
Avian Cardiovascular Disease Characteristics, Causes and Genomics
Cardiovascular disease is common in avian species and increasing commercial economic losses and demand for healthcare in the household/smallholding veterinary sector has resulted in increased research into these disorders. This in turn has highlighted the importance of breeding, genetic testing and possibilities for future prognostic and diagnostic testing. Research into avian cardiovascular genetics has rapidly accelerated. Previously much work was undertaken in mammals with information extrapolated and transferred to birds. Birds have also been used to model cardiovascular disease and therefore knowledge has become enriched due to this endeavour. Increasingly, the avian genome is being analysed in its own right. This work is assisted by the growing number of avian genomes being published. In 2015, Nature published news on the ‘Bird 10K’ project, which aims to sequence 10,500 extant bird species. By 2018, the Avian Genomes Consortium had published the sequences of 45 species/34 orders. This review investigates a range of avian cardiovascular disorders in order to highlight their pathologies, epidemiology and genetics in addition to avian models of heart disease. With the availability of more reference genomes, increases in the number and magnitude of avian studies and more advanced technologies, the genetics behind avian cardiovascular disorders is being unravelled.
Part of the book: Application of Genetics and Genomics in Poultry Science
The Anatomy, Histology and Physiology of the Healthy and Lame Equine Hoof
Satisfactory investigations of the equine foot appear to be limited by the histo-morphological complexity of internal hoof structures. Foot lameness is considered to be one of the most debilitating pathological disorders of the equine foot. In most species, foot lameness is traditionally linked to hoof deformity, and a set of molecular events have been defined in relation to the disease. So far, there is controversy regarding the incidence of foot lameness in horses, as it is unclear whether it is foot lameness that triggers hoof distortions or vice-versa. In order to develop a better understanding of foot lameness, we review both the healthy and lame foot anatomy, cell biology and vascularisation and using micro-computed tomography show new methods of visualising internal structures within the equine foot.
Part of the book: Veterinary Anatomy and Physiology
Investigation into Whether Proximal Suspensory Desmitis of the Hindlimb Could Predispose Horses to Sacroiliac Disease
Proximal suspensory desmopathy/desmitis (PSD) of the hindlimb is a well understood condition with widely accepted treatment protocols; however, there is little research demonstrating understanding or potential correlation between hindlimb PSD and sacroiliac disease (SID). Several studies have examined the co-existence of hindlimb PSD and SID each investigating unique predisposing factors. This has led to little direct correlation of cause and effect with no definitive conclusions drawn. The need to be objective is highlighted by the limited number of studies and that two studies used anecdotal evidence to support their hypothesis and thus creating the question does hindlimb proximal suspensory desmopathy predispose horses to sacroiliac disease? This review looks at the two conditions and compares the literature for each, including the incidence, biomechanics, anatomy, and treatment. The review further discusses whether one disorder predisposes horses/equids to the other.
Part of the book: Equine Science
Gene Therapy as a Modern Method of Treating Naturally Occurring Tendinitis and Desmitis in Horses
Tendon and ligament injuries have always been complex to treat, with recovery often taking many months, if successful at all. This chapter looks at recent work undertaken using regenerative medicine, specifically gene therapy and the advances that have been made in equine therapy. It looks at the process from plasmid construction, in vitro testing through to trialing the equine-specific plasmid construct in horses with superficial digital flexor tendon (tendinitis) and suspensory ligament branch injuries. It also looks at the rationale for utilizing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF164) and a basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) for these trials and the cellular effects and potential mechanisms of actions.
Part of the book: Equine Science
The Function of Seven Transmembrane Receptors in the Cardiovascular System and Their Role in the Development of Cardiomyopathy
The G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, also called seven-transmembrane receptor, 7TMRs, or heptahelical receptor) are a conserved family of seven transmembrane receptors which are essential not only in the healthy heart and blood vessels but also in for treatment and therapy of cardiovascular disease and failure. Heart failure is a global leading cause of morbidity and death and as such understanding 7TMRs, their functions, structures and potential for therapy is essential. This review will investigate the roles of the receptors in the healthy functioning cardiovascular system, and in cardiac disorders with an emphasis in cardiomyopathy. It will also explore the role of autoimmunity and autoantibodies against the G-protein-coupled receptors in cardiomyopathy.
Part of the book: Cardiac Diseases
Diagnosis, Prognosis, Management, Treatment, Research and Advances in Canine Dilated CardiomyopathyView all chapters
Dilated cardiomyopathy involves enlargement of the ventricular chamber and systolic dysfunction. The reduction in quality of life and increased levels of congestive heart failure, combined with the high diagnosis rate within the canine population, highlights the need for research into this disorder. This chapter looks at prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy. It details the disease pathology and physiology through to present clinical practices and studies to support prevention and treatment. This chapter also looks at the research being undertaken to further understand cardiomyopathies in dogs and develop new interventions. This ranges from fatty acids profiles to genetics and even personalized medicine and comparisons with human cardiomyopathy.
Part of the book: Canine Genetics, Health and Medicine