The Mediterranean basin is one of the most geologically, biologically, and culturally complex region and the only case of a large sea surrounded by three continents. The chapter is focused on a diversity of Mediterranean amphibians and reptiles, discussing major threats to the species and its conservation status. There are 117 amphibians, of which 80 (68%) are endemic and 398 reptiles, of which 216 (54%) are endemic distributed throughout the Basin. While the species diversity increases in the north and west for amphibians, the reptile diversity increases from north to south and from west to east direction. Amphibians are almost twice as threatened (29%) as reptiles (14%). Habitat loss and degradation, pollution, invasive/alien species, unsustainable use, and persecution are major threats to the species. The important conservation actions should be directed to sustainable management measures and legal protection of endangered species and their habitats, all for the future of Mediterranean biodiversity.
Part of the book: Mediterranean Identities