Electrical impedance mammography (EIM) belongs to nonlocal techniques of image creation. It is based on a number of data collection methods, including the cross-sectional approach, the back-projection method with the weight function applied horizontally and vertically, and the static image method. The analysis of data acquired by applying the above methods enabled to work out the EIM diagnostic system. It involves the following diagnostic categories: structural percentile limits and the mammary gland structure, age-related percentile limits and age-related electric conductivity, outlying values statistics and early diagnostics of breast cancer, D-statistics and distortion of the mammographic scheme in the presence of breast cancer, diagnostic table, and the assessment of the electrical impedance image.
Part of the book: Breast Imaging
The aim was to explore the possibility to forecast a risk of hypoxic lesions in a monotonous fetal heart rate via ECG measurements by the methods of time and frequency analysis. The study involved 50 healthy pregnant women with singleton pregnancy at 37-41 weeks of gestation along with 17 pregnant women in the same period of gestation who had a monotonous fetal heart rate registered of various origin. The registration of fetal heart rates was performed using fetal monitor “Monica AN24” (“Monica Healthcare Ltd”, United Kingdom), transabdominal, using ECG electrodes. The software package “Monica DK” has been used to retrieve the “beat-to-beat” data. Analysis of experimental data was carried out on the basis of LABVIEW® software (National Instruments®, USA). The analysis of time parameters for fetal hypoxia showed a sharp decline in the spread function and a sharp increase in the concentration function. Spectral analysis showed a significant decrease in the ratio of high- to low-frequency components of the spectrum. In the analysis of fetal ECG, the ST segment depression was noted, which is also indicative of fetal hypoxia.
Part of the book: Obstetrics
Nowadays, screening uses the method of X-ray mammography for the early diagnosis of breast cancer. However, as a screening method, X-ray mammography has its limitations, such as age, periodicity of screening, ‘dense’ mammary gland and dynamic survey (repeated radiation). In order to overpass these limitations, more advanced alternative methods of breast examination should be used, which would be as effective as the ‘golden standard.’ Characteristics of electroimpedance diagnostics are given. The aim of screening is to detect breast cancer including early breast cancer (tumor size below 1 cm) and to form a survey of high-risk group. In order to reach these aims, the following actions need to be undertaken: search for areas with anomalous conductivity, detection of distorted mammographic scheme and evaluation of age-related electrical conductivity. The application of a scale for age-related breast conductivity with defined percentile limits allows to organize a survey group. Electrical properties of a cancerous tumor differ significantly from those of the surrounding tissues. Statistics of anomalous conductivity in cases of breast cancer is given. The disease development connected with the destruction of epithelial basement membrane is linked with various phenomena occurring in the tumor and the surrounding tissues. Statistics of disrupted mammographic scheme in cases of cancer is given.
Part of the book: Breast Cancer and Breast Reconstruction