As many as 40–50% of all patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD) die from reasons related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The severity of the illness is directly connected to higher mortality caused by cardiovascular factors, with the cause of the CKD not as significant for the relationship. This risk of high cardiovascular mortality and morbidity is actually so high that it surpasses the risk of the patients reaching end-stage renal disease. Within the context of CKD, CVD has certain distinct characteristics. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is commonly used as a predictor of cardiovascular (CV) mortality. The striking cardiac interstitial fibrosis, a crucial part of uremic cardiomyopathy, and nonobstructive vascular diseases are highly prevalent CV pathology in CKD patients. Traditional risk factors appear to be of less importance in the CKD population compared to the general population but have been hypothesized as uremic toxins as a risk factor of cardiorenal syndrome. In this chapter, we discuss the importance of renal function in the pathophysiology of heart failure. We also elaborate on the novel understanding of chronic kidney disease and its role in cardiovascular disease progression.
Part of the book: Chronic Kidney Disease