Crude oil and other petroleum products are crucial to the global economy today due to increasing energy demand approximately (~1.5%) per year and significant oil remaining after primary and secondary oil recovery (~45-55% of original oil in place, OOIP), which accelerates the development of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technologies. Polymer flooding through hydrophobically associated polyacrylamides (HAPAM) is a widely implemented EOR-technique, so they attracted much attention on both academic and industrial scales. Hydrophobically associating polyacrylamide (HAPAM) prepared by free radical emulsion polymerization of acrylamide (AM) monomer, divinyl sulfone as hydrophobic crosslinked moiety and surfmers, to chemically anchor a surfmer and hydrophobic crosslinker moiety onto the back bone of acrylamide chain. After that, polymeric nanocomposite was prepared through copolymerization of prepared HAPAM with different molar ratios of silica nanoparticles through one shot synthesis. Rheological properties for the prepared composites were evaluated. Wettability evaluation carried through quantitative and qualitative techniques where the results indicate novel polymers ability to alter rock wettability from oil-wet to water- wet.
Part of the book: Application and Characterization of Surfactants
Emulsion polymerization is a polymerization process with different applications on the industrial and academic scale. It involves application of emulsifier to emulsify hydrophobic polymers through aqueous phase by amphipathic emulsifier, then generation of free radicals with either a water or oil soluble initiators. It characterized by reduction of bimolecular termination of free radicals due to segregation of free radicals among the discrete monomer-swollen polymer particles. The latex particles size ranged from 10 nm to 1000 nm in a diameter and are generally spherical. A typical of particle consist of 1–10,000 macromolecules, where macromolecule contains about 100–106 monomer units.
Part of the book: Polymerization
Carbon capture aims to mitigate the emission of CO2 by capturing it at the point of combustion then storing it in geological reservoirs or applied through enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in a technology known as miscible flooding, so reduce CO2 atmospheric emissions. Miscible CO2-EOR employs supercritical CO2 to displace oil from a depleted oil reservoir. CO2 improve oil recovery by dissolving in, swelling, and reducing the oil viscosity. Hydrocarbon gases (natural gas and flue gas) used for miscible oil displacement in some large reservoirs. These displacements may simply amount to “pressure maintenance” in the reservoir. In such flooding techniques, the minimum miscibility pressure determined through multiple contact experiments and swelling test to determine the optimum injection conditions.
Part of the book: Carbon Capture, Utilization and Sequestration
Precise PVT studies and behavior of phase-equilibrium of petroleum reservoir fluids are essential for describing these fluids and appraising their volumetric behavior at several pressure stages. There are numerous laboratory studies that can be performed on a reservoir sample. The amount of data desired determines the number of tests to be performed in the laboratory. Generally, there are three laboratory tests which characterize hydrocarbon fluids, namely primary study, constant mass depletion, and differential vaporization test. Generally, PVT properties are determined either experimentally or calculated theoretically through published correlations. This chapter presents different PVT laboratory tests that are required to understand the phase behavior of black oils.
Part of the book: Processing of Heavy Crude Oils