Optical limiters are smart materials that follow passive approaches to provide laser protection, which are useful for the protection of human eyes, optical elements, and optical sensors from intense laser pulses. Many functional materials have been widely investigated with the view to realize practical passive optical limiting application. However, preparation of the required nonlinear optical active materials for optical limiters still presents a significant chemical challenge. In particular, this chapter gives emphasis to the nonlinear properties modulation of porphyrin and phthalocyanine covalently functionalized graphene and carbon nanotubes nanohybrids for the function of optical power limiting aiming the achievement of effective systems through the appropriate combination and modulation of several structural components. The nonlinear optical mechanisms observed in inorganic-organic nanohybrids, i.e., nonlinear scattering, nonlinear absorption, nonlinear refraction, and others, are discussed in conjunction with the influence of the materials properties and the laser source on the optical limiting performances.
Part of the book: Chemical Reactions in Inorganic Chemistry