Acquired visual impairment evoked several psychological reactions. A person’s adaptation to these reactions and their associated characteristics such as degree of vision loss, membership of a specific demographic, and impact on personality had been investigated. Socio-environmental variables also had an impact on psychological adjustment, and adaptation to vision loss had been explained using psychoanalytic models and stage models. Previous research had thus developed adjustment models incorporating the variables of anxiety, depression, self-esteem, self-efficacy, locus of control, acceptance of disability, attitudes toward blindness, and attributional style, among other influences. However, effective types of treatment based on these variables had not been empirically demonstrated. While grief work had been commonly used in intervention strategies, and there was now more information available about group counseling in this field, their evaluation had been insufficient. As an alternative, we implemented a structured group counseling program to decrease psychological distress in adults with visual impairment. The results indicated that participants who engaged in individual therapy in addition to group counseling showed decreased depression, fatigue, and confusion, and a significantly improved acceptance of their disability. The group counseling combined with individual cognitive therapy could be the effective tool to improve social influences and internal self of the person with visual impairment.
Part of the book: Causes and Coping with Visual Impairment and Blindness
Duchenne muscular dystrophy and myotonic dystrophy are genetic, progressive muscle diseases. These muscular dystrophies, which are currently incurable, cause muscle wasting or muscle weakness and decrease patients’ quality of life. In addition to muscular impairments, cognitive impairments are also reported in both Duchenne muscular dystrophy and myotonic dystrophy. Cognitive impairments in each type of muscular dystrophy are different and closely related to psychosocial variables and the quality of life of the patients. We reviewed the features of cognitive functions in each type of muscular dystrophy and their correlations with the quality of life of patients. Based on the findings, we have suggested effective interventions for improving the quality of life of muscular dystrophy patients.
Part of the book: Muscular Dystrophies