Abdominal wall hernias are usually suggested by the patient’s history and confirmed by physical examination; however, the history may be not typical, especially in patients with abdominal pain, distention, and overweight patients or in patients with small hernias located in unusual sites. Although most abdominal hernias are asymptomatic, the fear of developing complications like irreducibility, incarceration, and strangulation may necessitate prophylactic surgical repair; thus, early and accurate diagnosis is important. Before 20 years, herniorrhaphy was considered for imaging of hernias; however, in recent years, computed tomography (CT) (especially multidetector CT (MDCT)), together with ultrasound represented the mainstay of the diagnosis of abdominopelvic wall hernias by imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be used as a diagnostic aid in a minority of the cases. Each imaging modality has its own privilege. The main advantage of ultrasound is the dynamic ability for assessment, while the main advantage of computed tomography is the multiplanar reformatting, allowing identification and accurate diagnosis of the hernia type, its content, and also the associated complications. Radiologists should be familiar with common sites of hernias and their detailed normal anatomy in order to reach the diagnosis easily.
Part of the book: Hernia
The diagnosis of different peripheral nerve disorders is basically established by electrodiagnostic tests; the assessment of the function of peripheral nerve disorders is estimated by nerve conduction tests (NCT) and electromyography (EMG). The need for more information about nerve morphology mandated the usage of more diagnostic tools. This role is now achieved by means of peripheral nerve imaging consisting mainly of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography. In this chapter we will clarify the role of imaging in the diagnosis of peripheral nerve disorders, concentrating more on the role of modern high-resolution ultrasound, considering its advantages like cheap price, dynamic ability, and possibility of comparison with the contralateral side at the same setting.
Part of the book: Peripheral Nerve Disorders and Treatment