Stomach/gastric ulcer is a debilitating disease affecting more than 10% of the global population. Sufferers often have chronic pains with life-threatening gastrointestinal haemorrhage or perforation. Since the first diagnosis of stomach ulcer (SU) in the 19th century, excessive gastric juice that eroded the mucosa of the stomach was opined as its major cause. Efforts were channelled toward effective control of the resulting acid build-up through the use of antiulcer medications and reduction in stress-induced activities, which may aggravate gastric hyperacidity. An intense treatment option involved vagotomy (surgically severing the nerves surrounding an ulcer) to prevent hyperacidity and further perforation of the stomach epithelium. Despite these interventions, SU disease remained an impediment to clinical practice. Literatures revealed that many botanicals have been used to treat SU and this is hinged on their being endowed with antiulcerogenic phytonutrients of therapeutic significance. In this review, attempts have been made to highlight the main mechanisms of action and limitations of the conventional antiulcerogenic drugs, various antiulcerogenic experimental models, as well as compile selected medicinal plants and their implicated phytonutrients that will ultimately and eventually present effective and globally competitive exciting opportunities for the development of new lead therapeutics for the management of SU disorders.
Part of the book: Stomach Disorders
The rate of psychosis has drastically increased in recent years and the number of prescriptions for psychiatric medications has made an even bigger jump. With the worrisome side effects of the medications, which can pose serious health risks and make medication compliance difficult, coupled with the prohibitive cost for many patients, there is an obvious need for alternative solutions. This review presents the ambit of phytotherapy in psychotic care. Interestingly, the review revealed that, plant-based medicines are rich in phytonutrients of antipsychotic importance and may be effective as stand-alone treatments or supplementary to conventional interventions. Despite the emerging interest in phytotherapy for mental disorders, the majority of the formulations are yet to be clinically certified. However, simply disregarding them for this reason might be consequential and as such, for better and improved mental health, research into phytotherapeutic care for psychosis must remain to be continuously explored as a promising niche.
Part of the book: Psychosis
In many nations of the world, a great number of deaths and morbidity arising from illnesses are witnessed due to lack of basic health care. Phytotherapy has continued to play a significant role in the prevention and treatment of diseases (communicable and noncommunicable). Interestingly, more than 80% of the global populations now adopt phytotherapy as a basic source of maintaining good healthy conditions, owing to the pronounced side effects, nonavailability, and expensive nature of conventional treatment options. While this review looked at the prospects and downsides of phytomedicine as it relates to the national health care system, it established the fact that although a number of medicinal plants had been resourceful (effective) against a range of diseases, with few developed into drugs based on the available phytotherapeutics, quite a large number of them are yet to scale through clinical trials to determine their safety and efficacy. It is believed that until this is done, we hope phytomedicine to be adopted or integrated into the national health care system in many countries.
Part of the book: Pharmacognosy
Zingiber officinale, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae, is a popular spice and herb used as delicacy and to manage numerous diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, cancer, ulcer, diarrhea, cold, cough, spasm, vomiting, etc. in folk medicine from China, India, and Arabia Peninsula to other continents of the world including Africa (Nigeria, Egypt, and so on). Though this review is aimed at summarizing the pharmacological potentials of this well-endowed spice, interestingly, we found out that these reported ethnobotanical uses are attributed to a number of inherent chemical constituents including gingerol, 6-, 8-, 10-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 6-hydroshogaol, oleoresin, etc., eliciting various pharmacological effects, not limited to antioxidant, antitumor/anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antihypertensive, anticholesterolemic, antibiotic/antimicrobial, neuroprotective, antiulcer/gastroprotective, antiemetic, hepatoprotective, and antiplatelet aggregation, safety profiles established through a number of studies (in vitro, in vivo, and cell lines), though some of these potentials are yet to be explored. Sadly, even few of these established effects are yet to be experimented in clinical trials, and only until these are intensified would there be prospect toward drug development for preventive and curative treatments. In conclusion, we are able to highlight and sum up the therapeutic implications of ginger and its related derivatives in the management of ailments confronting humanity.
Part of the book: Ginger Cultivation and Its Antimicrobial and Pharmacological Potentials