Mexico is regarded as the point of origin and biodiversity of maize, which takes the colors white, yellow, blue, or red. Red maize in particular owes its coloring to a type of polyphenolic compounds known as anthocyanins. The aim of this study was to determine the profile anthocyanin of red maize, as well as their antiproliferative activity on prostate cancer cell line DU145. Three samples of red maize were analyzed. Total polyphenols, monomeric anthocyanins, antioxidant activity by DDPH and FRAP were evaluated. The sample of red maize with the highest levels of total polyphenols and monomeric anthocyanins was selected, and its anthocyanin fraction was analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS. Twenty compounds were detected in the anthocyanin profile, and from these, 12 anthocyanins derived of cyanidin were identified. MTT assay was used to determine the antiproliferative activity of the anthocyanin fraction from red maize at different concentrations (7–1000 μg/mL), and a significant antiproliferative activity was observed at 1000 μg/mL. Microscopy analysis showed that the anthocyanin fraction of red maize induced apoptosis in cell lines DU145. This is the first report showing that anthocyanin fraction of red maize possess antiproliferative activity in the DU145 cell line.
Part of the book: Flavonoids