Fouling is a phenomenon that occurs in all membrane processes. It is a complex problem, which limits the full operation of this technology. Fouling in pressure-driven membranes (PDMs) has been studied extensively, and the occurrence is well understood in that methods of mitigation have been proposed; however, limitations still occur for their full implementation. The use of osmotically driven membranes (ODMs) for water treatment is an emerging technology, which has shown some advantages such as low hydraulic pressure operation, high solute rejection and high recovery over PDMs. However, like in PDMs, fouling still presents a challenge. This chapter is aimed at evaluating the impact of fouling on the ODM performance, exploring the factors and mechanisms governing the fouling behaviour, developing approaches for mitigating fouling, elucidating the effect of membrane fouling and providing mitigation strategies as well as the causes of fouling in ODMs.
Part of the book: Osmotically Driven Membrane Processes
Coagulation is an essential mechanism that occurs in most conventional water and wastewater treatment plants. This occurs in a physical purification unit involving transport processes and the addition of coagulants for chemical reactions, charge neutralization, and formation of smaller flocs to agglomerate into larger flocs. This enhances the effective removal of recalcitrant contaminants by downstream processes. However, poor treatment of wastewater might have a high negative impact on biodiversity and the environment in general. This chapter seeks to address the limitation of employing inorganic coagulants by evaluating the efficiency of organic coagulants and exploring the factors and mechanism governing coagulation in a physiochemical treatment process of water and wastewater resources. The effect of pH, coagulant type and dosage to ease the high sludge production and discharge of residual metals into the downstream waters is addressed. The emerging of organic coagulants and technology to mitigate the performance and recovery of mineral coagulants from wastewater treatment residual is been proposed.
Part of the book: Organic Polymers
Fresh water quality and supply, particularly for domestic and industrial purposes, are deteriorating with contamination threats on water resources. Multiple technologies in the conventional wastewater treatment (WWT) settings have been adopted to purify water to a desirable quality. However, the design and selection of a suitable cost-effective treatment scheme for a catchment area are essential and have many considerations including land availability, energy, effluent quality and operational simplicity. Three emerging technologies are discussed, including anaerobic digestion, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) and membrane technology, which holds great promise to provide integrational alternatives for manifold WWT process and distribution systems to mitigate contaminants and meet acceptable limitations. The main applications, basic principles, merits and demerits of the aforementioned technologies are addressed in relation to their current limitations and future research needs in terms of renewable energy. Hence, the advancement in manufacturing industry along with WWT blueprints will enhance the application of these technologies for the sustainable management and conservation of water.
Part of the book: Water and Wastewater Treatment