Sprinkler rice saves water compared to paddy rice. However, in paddy fields, the water table is efficient for weed suppression. In sprinkler rice, there is no water table on soil; thus, weed management used in paddy rice may not be suitable for sprinkler rice, since herbicides and water table are expected to interact. Weed pressure in sprinkler rice is higher than in paddy rice; annual grasses are the main weeds in both paddy and sprinkler rice. Barnyardgrass, goosegrass, crabgrass and Alexandergrass show vigorous growth in sprinkler rice. A 3-year study shows that weeds in sprinkler rice reduce grain yield between 11 and 95%. Herbicides used in conventional and Clearfield® rice (clomazone, imazethapyr + imazapic, imazapyr + imazapic, pendimethalin and penoxsulam) were tested, contrasting paddy and sprinkler rice. Additionally, the technique locally called “needle-point” (glyphosate applied over the first-day emerging rice) was combined with pre- and postemergence herbicides. When using only pre- or postemergence, weeds reduced rice grain yield; a combination of products was the best option for sprinkler-irrigated rice. The Clearfield technology was efficient in controlling most weeds. However, using it combined to the needle-point promoted the best results. The main approaches for weed management in sprinkler-irrigated rice were summarized.
Part of the book: Advances in International Rice Research
The challenges for weed management have increased in rice cultivation due to the high number of cases of herbicide-resistant weeds, especially the widespread distribution of imidazolinone-resistant weedy rice. Therefore, there has been particular interest in preventive, physical, and cultural methods in recent decades. In this context, the adoption of the rice-soybean rotation is reported to be one of the most important factors for weed management in rice fields. Additionally, the use of a diversified crop rotation enables the implementation of a broader herbicide program, which is an important feature influencing weed population dynamics. Rice-soybean rotation has been adopted by farmers to control problematic weed species, reduce seed bank of troublesome weed species, and prevent rice grain yield and quality losses caused by its interference. This crop rotation scheme has brought several benefits when it comes to weed management; however, there are also some drawbacks when adopting this strategy such as the limited productivity of soybean and new weed species becoming problematic, such as Conyza species. Thus, this chapter explores the advantages and disadvantages of adopting crop rotation in Brazilian lowlands, and proposes a set of strategies to successfully implement crop rotation in lowland soils as a tool for weed management.
Part of the book: Rice Crop