This review aims to discuss the state of the art of the stoichiometric ratio of foliar nutrients and their impact on adaptive mechanisms of plants to environmental change. Plant stoichiometry is an excellent way to study the multiple ratios across the nutrients in plants and their ecological interactions with the environment. It plays an important role in clarifying the responses of plants to various changes and their adaptation to different environments. However, anthropic activity can change the stoichiometric ratios of plants. In recent decades, anthropic activities have altered the cycle of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and carbon (C) in plants. This is due to excessive fertilizer application, increased global warming and increased atmospheric CO2 emissions, which can quickly limit the increase of production in plants, as they affect the process of acclimatization, which involves a series of changes in plant metabolism at different levels of organization (molecular, biochemical, anatomical and morphological). In this sense, in this new scenario of changes, new plant responses to stoichiometric changes and adaptive processes in the ecosystem have to be reviewed.
Part of the book: Plant Ecology