The cardiovascular system is composed of a complex network of vessels, where highly uniform hierarchical branching structures are regulated by the anatomy and local flow requirements. Arteries bifurcate many times before they become capillaries where the scaling factor of vessel length, diameter and angle between two children branches is established at each level of recurrence. This behaviour can be easily described using a fractal scaling principle. Moreover, it was observed that the basic pattern of blood distribution is also fractal, imposed both by the anatomy of the vascular tree and the local regulation of vascular tone. In this chapter, arterial physiology was analysed, where waveform complexity of arterial pressure time series was related to arterial stiffness changes, pulse pressure variations and the presence wave reflection. Fractal dimension was used as a nonlinear measure, giving place to a ‘holistic approach of fractal dimension variations throughout the arterial network’, both in health and disease.
Part of the book: Fractal Analysis
Healthcare is one of the key fields that works quite strongly with advanced analytical techniques for prediction of diseases and risks. Data being the most important asset in recent times, a huge amount of health data is being collected, thanks to the recent advancements of IoT, smart healthcare, etc. But the focal objective lies in making sense of that data and to obtain knowledge, using intelligent analytics. Nonlinear systems find use specifically in this field, working closely with health data. Using advanced methods of machine learning and computational intelligence, nonlinear analysis performs a key role in analyzing the enormous amount of data, aimed at finding important patterns and predicting diseases. Especially in the field of smart healthcare, this chapter explores some aspects of nonlinear systems in predictive analytics, providing a holistic view of the field as well as some examples to illustrate such intelligent systems toward disease prediction.
Part of the book: Nonlinear Systems