This chapter examines the current energy scenario for microgrids over the world and discusses the challenges and opportunities due to the increasing penetration of distributed power generation systems and electric vehicles (EVs) into the microgrids. Wind power and solar power can be generated by wind turbines and photovoltaics, respectively, while these are intermittent in nature. EVs and hybrid EVs use a battery energy storage system and charging facilities while the latter also include an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) to provide an extra energy source. The features of these systems in the context of microgrids are studied in detail, in terms of their components, efficiency, reliability, charging and discharging arrangements, active and reactive power control. The chapter provides a reference to the development of microgrid systems especially for developing countries.
Part of the book: Development and Integration of Microgrids