Modulation‐doped semiconductor nanostructures exhibit extraordinary electrical and optical properties that are quantum mechanical in nature. The heart of such structures lies in the heterojunction of two epitaxially grown semiconductors with different band gaps. Quantum confinement in this heterojunction is a phenomenon that leads to the quantization of the conduction and the valence band into discrete subbands. The spacing between these quantized bands is a very important parameter that has been perfected over the years into device applications. Most of these devices form low‐dimensional charge carriers that potentially allow optical transitions between the subbands in such nanostructures. The transition energy differences between the quantized bands/levels typically lie in the infrared or the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum and can be designed according to the application in demand. Thus, a proper understanding and a suitable external control of such intersubband transitions (ISTs) are not only important aspects of fundamental research but also a necessity for optoelectronic device applications specifically towards closing the terahertz gap.
Part of the book: Different Types of Field-Effect Transistors