Torrefaction is a thermochemical process in a narrow temperature ranging from 200 to 300°C, where primarily hemicellulose fibers are depolymerized. This process is carried out under atmospheric pressure and in anaerobic conditions; heating ratio is low (<50°C/min) and the residence time is relatively long, up to 1 h. During the process, a biomass is partially decomposed and forms different condensing and noncondensing gases. The final product is a constant substance rich in carbon, which is called a torrefied biomass—biochar and biocarbon. Currently an increase in energy demand is impacting the environment considerably. For this reason, in this chapter the organic waste torrefaction technology will be presented, including the reactor systems review. Torrefaction process may be conducted in different types of reactors, with diverse technologies. From this variety, two main groups of reactors can be distinguished, with direct and indirect heating. Direct heating group consists of reactors with multiple design, such as Multiple Hearth Furnace, microwave reactor, moving bed, vibrating belt, the reactor belt, and auger. Indirect heating reactors are less common and this group consists of rotating drum and auger reactor. All mentioned reactor types will be presented and discussed.
Part of the book: Pyrolysis